लेखक हैं भाजपा विधायक राजकिशोर महतो। श्री महतो धनबाद जिले के सिंद्री विधान सभा से विधायक हैं। इन्होंने राजनीति की शुरूवात झारखंड मुक्ति मोर्चा से की। शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में इनका रिकार्ड शानदार रहा है। धनबाद स्थित विश्व प्रसिद्ध इंजीनियरिंग कॉलेज इंडियन स्कूल ऑफ माइन्स से माइनिंग इंजीनियरिंग करने के बाद इन्होंने लॉ की डिग्री हासिल की और एक शानदार वकील बने। राजनीति में कदम रखने से पहले वे पटना उच्च न्यायलय के रांची खंडपीठ में सरकारी वकील थे। श्री महतो झारखंड के मसीहा बिनोद बिहारी महतो के ज्येष्ठ पुत्र है। सांसद बिनोद बाबू के निधन के बाद ही इन्होंने उनके स्थान पर गिरिडीह संसदीय सीट से उपचुनाव जीत कर लोक सभा पहुंचे। जब झारखंड आंदोलन अपने चरम पर था और एक नई पार्टी की जरूरत थी तो इन्होंने ने हीं पार्टी का नाम झारखंड मुक्ति मोर्चा सुझाया । उस समय वे एक क्रांतिकारी सिपाही थे। इनके पिता झामुमो के संस्थापक अध्यक्ष के साथ साथ आंदोलन के कर्ताधर्ता थे। झारखंड के बारे में लेखक राजकिशोर महतो ने शानदार विश्लेषण किया है। इससे झारखंड को समझने में बड़ी आसानी होगी -
The present Jharkhand state may be regarded as comprised of the Chotanagpur plateau and the Santhal Parganas. This state covers an area of 79,700 sq kilometers and according to 1981 Census its population was 1.80 crores. Now the population is about 2 crores 75 lakh.
Jharkhand state is covered by hills, hillocks, ridges, intercepted by rivers, fountain, rivolutes, and on the vally, there are plain lands and other areas are covered by thick forests.
The Jharkhand state is mineral rich area and contains all type of minerals in abundance and has resources for generation of electricity and establishment of various types of industries.
It is necessary to look at the demographic situation of the present Jharkhand State. Some times ago, before independence of Indian majority population of the Jharkhand region were listed as scheduled Tribes Jharkhand region means the territory of present Jharkhand State and the adjoining portion of West Bengal, Orissa and Madhaya Pradesh.
Many communities were found in this region who were declared aboriginal Tribes of the area. After the Survey of Mr. H H Rizley, a notification in the year 1993 was published by British government and after the athenical survey anthropological survey of W. G. Lessey another notification was issued in 1931, declaring thirteen communities as aboriginals having their own rules of in-heritance and right of property. Amongst these communities “ Kurmi Mahto” in fact “ Kudmi Mahto” community alone constituted 25% of the population of this state. The remaining schedule Tribe population is only 26% having 31 braches in the state according to 2001 census. However, Kurmi-Mahto has been delisted from the list of scheduled Tribe after independence, without any reason, what so ever and without any order/ notification many other communities were also delisted and categorised as Backward Cast.
The life of the original inhabitants of Jharkhand depends upon the agriculture and on forest produced mainly. They have their traditional way of life depending upon their own customs and heritages. The only major crop is paddy and for rest of the year the field remains uncultivated. Most of the river water, fountain water has been polluted because of industrialization.
At present the population of the Jharkhand state may be categorised as Mool-Vashis or Sadavashis and migrants. Mool-Vashi can be further divided in to Schedule Tribe (26%) -Schedule Cast (10%) and backward communities and general. The population of migrants
Would be hardly twenty percent of the total population.
The migrants have control over the city population and over the economy of the state, business, services in the state organization and central Govt. organization and moolvashi neglected and exploited.
Now there is no doubt that the Jharkhand movement commenced in 2 nd decade of the 20th century when it is germinated and turned into a socio-economic movement. It retained its tribal character for greater part of its life. In its latest phase, it had acquired a broader base and all section of people supported the autonomy or a separate state for the region.
Jharkhand movement has been an agitation against social economical, educational, Cultural and political exploitation of the original inhabitants of the state by the migrants.
The demand for separate state of Jharkhand was rejected by the central Govt. on the basis of a wrong report submitted by state Re-organization commission in 1956 and there after Sri Jaipal singh Munda, the Jharkhand leader merged in Congress in 1963. During 1956 to 1970, the Jharkhand movement was scattered.
In 1968, a social organization called “ Shivaji” was formed by Binod Bihari Mahto advocate, educationlist and social worker. This organization was a social organization of Kurmi Mahto community of Jharkhand region. At that point of time, some year later at the inspiration of binod Bihari Mahto, “ Sonat Santhal Samaj”, a social organization of Santhal community was formed by shibu Soren . Other communities, who were oppressed and neglected also started such social organization after being impressed by the social activities of Shivaji Samaj and Sonat Santhal Samaj for upliftment of their societies respectively.
In the year 1973 just before declaration of Emergency in India, Binod Bihari Mahto formed “ Jharkhand Mukti Morch” in which these two societies merged. The young and turbulent Shibu Soren was made the General Secretary of this party where as Binod Bihari Mahto became the president. The name of the party was a creation of the intellect of Raj Kishore Mahto, then young mining engineer, the eldest son of Binod Bihari Mahto.
It is a fact that Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India gave new life to this movement by re-opening the issue of separate Jharkhand State in the year 1989 when he constituted a high level committee namely, “ The Committee on Jharkhand matters” This committee submitted a report in May 1990, before Home Minister of the Central govt. This report proved to be turning point in the history of the Jharkhand movement.
Unfortunately, Rajiv Gandhi was assisnated in May 1991. However, Narsingha Rao Jee became Prime Minister and had a talk with Binod Bihari Mahto, the then MP og Giridih and his other five MPs from Jharkhand Mukti Morcha in this regard and sought support to form his government. Binod Bihari Mahto was ready on only one condition to lend support, if congress would create a separate Jharkhand state.
Unfortunately Sri Mahto expired on 18-12-1991 and there after there was a great set back in the movement. However, Raj Kishore Mahto the eldest son of Binod Bihari Mahto, a mining engineer and renowned advocate working as government pleader in Patna High court Ranchi Bench was brought in politics and faught bye-election from Giridih seat and was elected in place of his father on 11-05-1992.
Shibu Soren became the president of JMM party and became the dictator of the party and he left the demand of Separate state hood and conceded and agreed on Jharkhand area, Autonomous council. The JMM splited on this issue and on the issue of support to Laloo Prasad Yadav, who at that point of time was totally anti congress in Bihar. Shri Raj Kishore Mahto continued his support to Laloo government in united Bihar against Congress, but Shibu Soren with three other M.Ps and nine M.L.As supported congress and with drew support from Laloo Prasad.
Another group J.M.M (Mardi) came in existence of which Krishna Maradi M.P from Singhbhum West became president and Raj Kishor Mahto M.P from Giridih with nine MLAs became the general Secretary.
In spite of strong and wide opposition and agitation by JMM (Mardi). The Tribal Council was formed on 24-12-1994 by Congress and Laloo Prasad with support from BJP, Samata, Left Parties and others. This Council made a provision that only Scheduled Tribes would become its chairman. In this Council Kurmi Mahto’s were totally neglected who have sacrificed there leaders and shave suffered a lot in Jharkhand movement.
Still under the leadership of Raj Kishor Mahto, the agitation for separate state went ahead in spite of all odds. It is a fact that on several occasion and in discussion sri Mahto was persuaded and pressurized by Home Ministry of the Central government to lend support to JAAC, but he did not succumbed. In a discussion and meeting held in Rashtrapati Bhawan on 07.05.1993, With the Honorable presdent of India, he was advised to support JAAC and to leave the agitation of separate state hood, but Sri Mahto had not agreed and went ahead with his agitation.
Sri Laloo Prasad did not make any poll alliance in 1996 parliamentary election with any of the fractions of JMM and as a result all the candidates lost except Shibu Soren. Laloo Pd also lost all MP seats in Jharkhand region and Bhartiya Janta Party begged 12 seats out of 14 of the South Bihar i.e Jharkhand.
The Congress, because of its role against the Jharkhand movement has already lost its mass base JMM (Soren) was loosing popularity because of failure of Jharkhand area autonomous council(JAAC), which was constituted on 24.12.94 and BJP was keenly observing that the aspiration of the people of the Jharkhand was creation of the state, and not JAAC. The movement and agitation led by the JMM(Mardi) faction for a separate state again gain momentum and popularity during 1992-1998, BJP took advantage of this situation and came forward with the issue of separate state though in the name of “ Vananchal” and this was included in the agenda of 1999 parliamentry elections. After MP election, BJP leader Sri Atal Bihari Vajpayee on 01-03-1998 had already given statement from Lucknow for creation of three separate new states.
On 31.10.1998, after much though and watching the whole situation and realizing the fact that only a national party can bring a bill of separate state and the bill can never be passed by a regional party, even if it gets all seats of Jharkhand region, Sri Raj Kishore joined Samata party which was in alliance with BJP. It is known to all that Raj Kishore Mahto was approached by top leaders of the BJP including Sri Govindacharya jee to bring sri Mahto in BJP and was offered ticket, but he not accepted the offer, because of the fact that BJP has also suppoted JAAC which was opposed by Sri Mahto. Sri Mahto joined Samata on 31-10-1998 because it was Samata whose support was necessary for the issue and creation of Jharkhand.
Sri Mahto was given the post of National General Secretary of Samata and was made incharge of Jharkhand area and west Bengal. JMM(Mardi) extinguished after joining of Raj Kishore Mahto in Samta.
It is fact that NDA/ BJP came in power in Jharkhand because of the large support of Kurmi-Mahto community people. Shailendra Mahto(BJP), Raj Kishor Mahto(MP), Ram Tahal Choudhary(MP), Chatru Ram Mahto(MLA,minister), Lal Chand Mahto(MLA, minister), Khiru Mahto(MLA), Sudesh Mahto(MLA, minister) and other also supported BJP/NDA more over, Other leaders from JMM belonging to Kurmi community had agitated for this issue.
It is fact that the single largest caste(25%) of Jharkhand is Kurmi Mahto’s who have been rendered homeless and land less in large scale due to acquisition of land for mining operations, industrial establishment, dams, thermal and hydro elctriacl projects and allied activities and for establishment of towns and infrastructures.
This community having been suppressed and exploited socially, economically and educationally participated in this Jharkhand movement under this leadership of Binod Bihari Mahto and there, after under this leadership of Shibu Soren and Raj Kishor Mahto.
This community havings largest single caste population developed anger, hatred for ruling Congress, because of the aforesaid reasons and for the reason and for the for the reason that they had never been given any representation in Congress Party. The demand for this community for re-inclusion in this Shheduled Tribe list has been neglected since half century, like Jharkhand issue.
After the cration of new Jharkhand state on 15-11-2000, it has been observed that the policy of caste-wise reservation in services according to our constitution could not be setted down in the state.
It has been observed that the reservation of parliamentary seats and assembly seats could not be setted according to the provision of our constitution which was to be done according to the population proportions of ST and SC and the delimitation act. Could not be implemented in Jharkhand, for no valid reason.
The passing of Panchayti Raj amendment Act 2001, has also created chaos amongst non tribes in 113 blocks specially affecting the tribal community Kurmi-Mahto’s who are now delisted from ST list, debarring them from representation as Mukhiya, Sarpanch, Pramukhs and MLAs.
After the cration of new state, it has been that many casts abd communities like Rajwars, Teli, Sudis, Kumahar, Mayaras, Ghatwars, kurmi-Mahtos and many others have led rallies and have made demands for their inclusion either as ST or SC or even Backward casts.
It is universal principle that when a new state is constituted, the status of casts, races, communities residing in the area, changes ipso-facto. That why our constitution of India has made provisions for categorization and classification of casts, races and community state-wise.
The list of united Bihar, in this regard has been imposed and is being implemented, which is against the all laws and against our constitution. No step has yet been taken by the state government or central government for assessment of social, economical, states of different casts, races and communities living within the new territory of Jharkhand according to article 340, 341, and 342 of the constitution of India. This has created major problems in the state.
The failure of the BJP as well as UPA government to find out any formula to satisfy and to uplift the oppressed original inhabitants (Moolvashi) of Jharkhand as well as migrants(Outsider settlers) have disturbed the state. In the matter of class III and Class IV jobs the original inhabitant are still being neglected and are not getting chance, because of want of any policy of the government. In other higher jobs and in technical education, the Jharkhand are being neglected and excluded as before the creation of the state and this has created great – heart burning.
In fact the congress could not assess the spirit and aspiration of the Jharkhand people. B.J.P also failed to realize the same. The national parties are still away from the state issue and local issues. These parties have shut their eyes and the exploitation of local people is going on in the same speed as before. That is why is the terrorism is increasing
The result of negligence of the local issue like displacement due to land acquisition and form forest and other issue as stated above, there is a tendency of detachment of local people from national parties and the young generation is again shifting their confidence to regional parties like AJSU and Janta Dal( United) and others and because of the above reasons, regional sentiments is on rise.
The majority of ST community and community SC people not have much grievance against national parties, as they are getting reservation of their quota. The Moolvashi population have grievance against national parties, they are still being neglected.
The “Patar Munda” community has been including in S.T. list to which “Arjun Munda” ex Chief Minister belongs to. How ever, the list of a number of communities has been sent to central government for inclusion as ST and SC. The proposal of re-inclusion in the schedule Tribe list of Kurmi-Mahto’s has been sent to Central govt by NDA govt of Jharkhand in the year 2004, but the same is still pending.
Now, it depend on the national parties how they deal with the present situations of Jharkhand state. They are to decide the agenda with care to come to power in Jharkhand in next election. ( इस विश्लेषण का हिन्दी रूपांतर अगले पोस्ट में पढ सकते हैं।)