सबसे पहले आप सभी लोगों को गणतंत्र दिवस की बधाईयां। झारखंड को देश का रूर या आधार कहा जाये तो गलत नहीं होगा। एक देश या राज्य को आगे बढाने के लिये जो चाहिये वह सब कुछ झारखंड में है। चाहे कोयला, लोहा यूरेनियम, मिथेन गैस का मामला हो या बिजली बनाने के लिये तेज बहाव वाले झरने या वातावरण को प्रदषूण मुक्त रखने वाले घने जंगल या खेती की जमीन, सब कुछ है। झारखंड को संक्षेप में कैसे जाना जाये, इसे बेहतर तरीके से पेश किये हैं सुप्रीम कोर्ट के वकील राज किशोर महतो। श्री महतो पूर्व सांसद भी रह चुके हैं। वर्तमान में भाजपा में हैं और विधायक हैं सिंद्री विधान सभा से। झारखंड मे राष्ट्रपति शासन लागू हो चुका है। विधान सभा निलंबित है। श्री महतो का झारखंड और इसके आदिवासी नेताओं पर एक रिपोर्ट -
It has to be seen as to whether the newly created Jharkhand State is demographically a tribal state. The concept of ' tribal' i. e. Jan Jati has come from the British rule. Mr. H. H. Rizley, a noted anthropologist had made out a survey in, the than Bengal and Orissa province during 1880-85, regarding the demography of the Chhota Nagpur Plato extended over present Bihar, Jharkhand, Bengal and Orissa and has prepared a report which was published as ' Tribes of Bengal and Orissa' in 1891. He has found thirteen major communities having their own way of life, their own social customs, own law of inheritance and property, which were totally different from the people living in the plane lands of India. These communities were categorized as ' Tribes' or 'Aboriginals', whose thinking and philosophy of life, beliefs regarding religion were different. These tribes were mainly Munda, Uraon, Ho, Khariyas, Pahariyas, Kurmi, Khond, Gond, Pan etc. which constituted more than seventy percent population of the chhota Nagpur plato.
Another anthropological survey was again conducted in 1930-31 by Mr. W. C. Leasy. In this survey also these thirteen communities were termed as 'Tribes' or aboriginals of the Plato. Two notification were gazzetted by British government, one in 1913 and another in 1931, in which these communities were termed as tribes or aboriginals and were kept beyond the preview of certain provision of the Indian Succession Act 1925, which provision retails to the law of inheritance of property and customary rights.
It has to be remembered that in 1908,"Chota Nagpur Act, 1908" was enacted to protect the lands and customary rights of these tribes and other backward class and Scheduled Cstes of the Chotta Nagpur region. It has to be remembered that in 1912, Bihar was separated from Bengal province and in 1936 Orissa was separated from Bihar and there after India became independent in 1947.
So far as these two notifications are concerned, they were adopted like any other notifications, rules, regulation etc. under the provisions of the constitution of India, surprisingly a great mistake was done while the list of Scheduled Tribes for Bihar was published in which Kurmi Mahto tribe was not included in the list for no reason. Some members of Lok Sabha, like Sri Katzoo and some others pointed out this mistake, but in spite of attention drawn by the then Prime Minister, the mistake could not be rectified.
The made a major change in the percentage of population of tribes in the South Bihar region of Bihar i. e. Jharkhand region , as the Kurmi mahto tribes constitute 25%-26% of the total population of the Jharkhand region of south Bihar, i.e. the newly Jharkhand State.
Now let us see the tribal leadership in Jharkhand movement. The demand for separate state of Jharkhand starting during 1915-1920 by a group of educated Christians of St. Columbus Church of Hazaribag, under the banner of "Chotta Nagpur Unnati Samaj" and raise the issue of separate state of whole Chhota Nagpur Plato, extending to Bengal, Orissa, Bihar and Madhaya Pradesh. In 1938, Sri Jaipal Singh Munda educated in Britain, another Christian raised the issue under the banner of "Adibashi Mahasabha' which was restricted only to Adivashi population.
In 1948 Jharkhand Party was formed by Jaipal Singh Munda and this time non tribals are also invited in its fold. In 1952 general assembly election in Bihar, thus party bagged 33 seats and become opposition party in Bihar.
However, even than state Re-organization Commission rejacted the demand in 1954-55 on some wrong grounds, one of which wasthat the movement was led by Only tribes, constituting only 30% population of the region.
The report of the SRC gave massive blow to the issue and Subsequently Jaipal Sing joined Congress with some of his major associates and became a Deputy Minister in Bihar government. The movement was scattered and the result of the movement of Jharkhand Party culminated in a mere post of deputy minister.
However, Shri N E Horo a close, associate of Jaipal Singh, continued the Jharkhand Party and did not join congress. Some others Parties like birsa Seva Dal under leadership of Mr. Mozesh Gudia an others like Bagun somrai and Ram Dayal Munda also continued the issue, but did not make any remarkable base.
There was a gape of about fifteen years since the report of SRC and in the year 1971, a new party named as "Jharkhand Mukti morcha" emerged and registered in 1973, having its president Shri Binod Bihari Mahto, advocate, and a kurmi Mahto tribe and experience leftist of Bihar and Shri Shibu Soren as its General Secretary. Nirmal Mahto became President in 1983 and after the murder of Nirmal Mahto, Shibu Soren became the president in 1987 and Shailendra Mahto became General Secretary. Binod Bihari Mahto remained as guardian of the party.
Binod Bihari Mahto widened the base of Jharkhand movement, by including comrade A.K.Roy and Sri Mutatedhari Singh the leading trade unions of the coal fields, and all sections of the people, even so called outsiders joined hands with Binod Bihari Mahto.
After the demise of Binod Bihari Mahto, JMM splited inti two groups J.M.M.(S) and J.J.M(Mardi), having two MPs Sri Krishna Mardi and Shri Raj Kishor Mahto(Son of Binod Bihari Mahto) and nine MLAs in Mardi fraction.
This separation was on the issue of formation of Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council, which was supported by JMM(S), Lalu Prasad and Congress, mainly opposed by JMM(Mardi) which continue the issue of separate state. Even in a meeting with Hon'ble president of India, Raj Kishore Mahto(MP) and Krishna Mardi(MP) did not support the JAAC and pleaded for a separate state on 07.03.1993.
The story of JMM bribery case is well known in which four MPS of Soren group were sent to Tihar jail.
It is also well known that BJP and SAMATA party the newly created N.D.A. passed the Bill of Jharkhand state in 2000, when Shri Raj Kishore Mahto was the National secretary of SAMTA Party. After formation of Jharkhand on 15-11-2000, Babulal Marandi became 1st Chief Minister and then in 2005, Shibu Soren became Chief Minister for nine days, than Arjun Munda became Chief Minister from NDA and Madhu Kora became chief Minister and the after Shibu Soren again became Chief Minister 3-4 months and lost the Tamar bye-elections, while remaining CM.
All are tribes, rather members of ST, but still there is no stability in the Government.
What is the demographical situation in Jharkhand now a days, has to be seen. These is only 25-26% of ST, ten percent of SC and remaining are OBCs and general according to 2001 census. Surprisingly there are 31 divisions amongst ST population. Kurmi Mahto Tribe is no longer a ST which along constitutes 25-26% of total population according to 2001 cencus.
The leadership of ST has badly failed in Jharkhand now and position is that the Jharkhand is no longer a tribal state demographically.